Management is a process of controlling, organizing, leading, planning, and motivating resources for the purpose of achieving a specific goal. The management function of an organization is responsible for its growth and survival. It is involved in the development of strategic plans, the development of policies, and the allocation of resources for meeting the goals of interested parties.
The first comprehensive theories of management appeared in the 1920s. This was followed by an increase in demand for managerial skills in the early 1900s. Colleges capitalized on this need and formed business schools. These schools provided training in management to fill the growing number of positions in a corporation.
A study of managers in the 1970s by Henry Mintzberg has had a long-term influence on the field. His work is still widely read, and the nature of managerial work has changed little since then.
Although the term “management” is sometimes used to describe a non-profit organization or a government body, it is more commonly associated with a group of individuals who are responsible for the coordination of an organization’s resources. Managers are specialists in planning and control, and they are accountable for completing tasks within a specific time frame and for fulfilling the objectives of interested parties.
Management includes the use of human and physical resources to achieve a particular goal. A good manager should be able to juggle multiple projects at once, while maintaining a positive attitude towards the job. He or she should also be able to communicate effectively with the people in the organization and hold everyone accountable.
In addition to the five basic functions of management, there are numerous other functions, such as leadership and organizational roles. All of these functions can be applied to both public and private organizations.
As the definition of management grew more expansive, more perspectives were introduced. Rensis Likert developed a sociological perspective, while Ordway Tead focused on the psychological aspect of managing. Those with a formal business education became the corporate elite in the US.
An effective manager should be able to develop a vision for the firm and inspire others to follow that vision. They should be able to think creatively to come up with solutions for various problems. Moreover, they should be able to motivate and encourage employees to perform their best.
Unlike traditional management, authoritative management is more likely to be used in emergency situations. Because it can negatively affect employee morale over time, it is not recommended as a long-term approach.
Despite the fact that it is a complicated discipline, management is a science that can help an organization achieve its goals. In order to become a successful manager, you should know when to start, how to keep things moving, and when to pause.
Effective management also involves learning how to use the right tools. Computers are extremely powerful tools, but they cannot replace human expertise. For example, computers can calculate resources in advance, but they cannot replace the skill of a good manager.